Paryushan and Das Lakshana Parva
Method: One who performs this fast attains all sorts of pleasures and prosperity. His all wishes get fulfilled. Get up early in the morning in Bramh Muhoorat (before sun rise) and have your bath. Wear neat and clean clothes and start worshipping the Lordin home as well as in temple with chanting mantra, aarti and by other worshiping ways. After that one should complete worshipping ceremony with faith and devotion donate some thing to needy, donate some foods to animals or insects. Below is the given way of fast:
Upvas: To give up only food for the whole day.(starting from previous sunset to 2nd day sunrise - approximately 36 hours)
Chauvihar Upvas: Like Upvas, to give up food as well as water.
Digambar Upvas: One may drink water only once a day, before sunset.
Shvetamber Upvas: One may drink boiled and cooled water after Porsi, provided this is done before sunset.
Tivihar Upvas: One may drink boiled water between sunrise and sunset.
Ekasana: To eat one meal a day at one sitting and drink boiled water as desired between sunrise and sunset.
Beasana: To eat two meals a day in two sittings and drink boiled water anytime between sunrise and sunset.
Ayambil: Eating food once in one sitting. The food contains only cereals and pulses not sprouted and it is spice free and boiled or cooked, without milk, curds, ghee, oil, oil seeds, or green/raw vegetables, fruits and sugar and its products.
Paryushan is the most important festival in the Jain religion. It is
observed during the month of August and/or September. The
Shvetämbar sect observes it for 8 days while the Digambar sect
observes it for 10 days where it is known as Das Lakshana Parva.
During these eight or ten days, the entire Jain community
becomes engrossed in an atmosphere of spiritual enthusiasm and
Paryushan can be literally translated, as "coming together from all
directions" This symbolizes growth and transformation.
The word “Paryushan” has several meanings:
. Pari + Ushan = all kinds + to burn = to burn (shed) all
types of karmas. Our scriptures have prescribed twelve
different types of austerities including fasting (Tap), to
shed our karmas.
. Another meaning of “Ushan” is, to stay closer. To stay
closer to our own soul from all directions and to stay
absorbed in our own-self (soul), we do Swädhyäy (self-
study), meditation, and austerities.
. Pari + Upashamanä = Upashamanä means to suppress,
to suppress our passions (Kashäyas - anger, ego, deceit
and greed) from all sources.
The purpose of life according to Jain teaching is to realize oneself,
to experience wholeness, peace and reverence for all life.
Therefore, the real purpose of Paryushan is to purify our soul by
observing and correcting our own faults, asking for forgiveness for
the mistakes we have committed, and taking vows to minimize our
faults. During Paryushan we should strive to minimize our worldly
affairs so that we can concentrate on our true-selves.
Generally, festivals are celebrations characterized by excitement,
enthusiasm, and enjoyment; but Jain festivals are characterized by
renunciation, austerities, study of the scriptures, repetition of holy
hymns (sutras/Stavans), meditation, and expressing devotion for
It is a period of repentance and confession for the undesirable acts
of the previous year and of austerities to help shed accumulated
karma. Austerity, the control of one's desire for material
pleasures, is a part of spiritual training. During this period, some
people fast for the entire period of eight or ten days, some for
lesser periods (a minimum fasting of the last three days is laid
down in the scriptures). However, it is considered obligatory to
fast on the last day of Paryushan. Fasting usually involves
complete abstinence from food or drink, but during the daytime,
drinking of water that has been boiled and cooled in the morning is
a common practice. If one cannot fast for the whole day, eating
only one meal also counts as limited fasting.
There are regular ceremonies in the temple and meditation halls
during this time. During the first three days of Paryushan the
Sädhus and Sädhvis deliver sermons related to the five activities
that laymen (Shrävaks and Shrävikäs) are required to do during
The five essential activities of Paryushan are:
Leading a non-violent life, working towards a
non-violent world, and supporting animal
Respecting fellow human beings and
supporting humanitarian activities
Observing fasts for the last three days of
Visiting different Jain temples and supporting
Repenting our sins, forgiving others and
requesting forgiveness from others
In the Shvetämbar tradition, the Kalpa Sutra, a scripture that
includes a detailed account of Bhagawän Mahävir.s life and other
Tirthankars. lives, is read to the congregation from the fourth thru
the last day of Paryushan.
On the fourth day a special reverence is given to the Kalpa Sutra.
On the fifth day the auspicious dreams of Bhagawän Mahävir.s
mother Trishalä are celebrated at a special ceremony. The final
day of Paryushan, known as Samvatsari, and the day of
repentance of our past sins and forgiveness to others, is the most
important day of Paryushan.
Digambar sect calls this festival Das Lakshana Parva and
observes it for 10 days. Each day is dedicated to one religious
virtue. The 10 religious virtues are:
contentment - absence of greed
restraint of all senses
Tattvärtha Sutra, an ancient Jain scripture that covers the entire
Jain philosophy, is read to the congregation. The scripture has 10
chapters and one chapter is read every day.
The last day of Paryushan (Samvatsari) for the Shvetämbar sect
and the first day of the Das Lakshana Parva (Kshamä) for the
Digambar sect is the day of forgiveness and is the most important
day for all Jains.
This is the day when all Jains repent for their past sins, ask for
forgiveness from family, friends, enemies, and especially from
those with whom they have struggled, for hurting them in any way
either knowingly or un-knowingly during the past year. It is
essential to our spiritual advancement that we do not harbor ill will
or hold grudges beyond a year. Hence, the annual occasion for
repentance and forgiveness is the most important day in Jain
By meditating and purifying ourselves during these eight days of
Paryushan or ten days of Das-lakshana, we come to realize
ourselves. We call the Festival of Paryushan, the Festival of the
Soul; for, when we forgive, we become one with the light of our
Listening to the Kalpa Sutra or Tattvärtha Sutra, taking positive
steps to ensure that living beings are not harmed or killed,
developing the feeling of brotherhood towards fellow human
beings and forgiveness for living beings, visiting neighboring
temples, are all important activities at this time.
On the last day those who have observed rigorous fasting are
honored, especially to encourage others to follow their example.
After performing Samvatsari Pratikraman (Pratikraman ritual on
the last day of Paryushan) or Das lakshana celebration, Jains
request forgiveness from all living beings in person, via telephone,
or via mail. One example of such a request in writing is shown
On This Auspicious Occasion of
We Beg Forgiveness
For Our Intentional and Unintentional
Michchhä mi Dukkadam
Tirthankar or Guru Vandan Posture