Characteristics of a Computer

  • Characteristics of a Computer Computers display following characteristics to a greater or lesser extent depending on their type and application. Computers are not merely calculators but are programmable calculators which help reduce the......More

Capabilities of Computers

  • Capabilities of Computers Computers offer unmatched speed, performing computations faster than humans. Computers undertake boring and repetitive tasks, relieving us for more critical, creative activities. Computers perform tasks......More

Limitations of Computers

  • Limitations of Computers Non-affordability: Initial cost of installing computers is very high, which puts limitation over its use. Compatibility: Programs and software’s prepared for one type of computer (based on microprocessor......More

Potential Dangers of Computers

  • Potential Dangers of Computers Loss of identity The computer has become so common that the commonness of data processing by computers has led people to protest its impersonality and even its elimination of jobs. Many people feel that......More

Brain versus Computer

  • Brain versus Computer Some people think that it is only a question of time when a computer would be programmed to function like ahuman brain, while others believe it is a fantasy of science fiction stories. Here are some of the features of a......More

Functioning of a Computer

  • Functioning of a Computer The working of a computer can be compared with the operations undertaken by a teacher in the preparation of final report book or result sheet, i.e. in tabulation of the class result. 1. The class teacher......More

Anatomy of Computer

  • Anatomy of Computer In principle, a computer of any kind works in much the same way as a teacher. It is concerned with accepting data as input, storing all the information, which is relevant to it, processing the data in a predetermined way......More

Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) of Computer

  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) of Computer It operates on the data available in the main memory (IAS) and sends them back after processing, once again to the main memory. ALU performs two functions: 1. It carries out arithmetical......More

Storage Devices of Computer

  • Storage Devices of Computer Storage devices are of two types: 1. Main storage or Immediate Access Storage  (IAS), which is a part of central processing unit. 2. Auxiliary memory storage or backing storage, which is external to......More

Control Unit of Computer

  • Control Unit of Computer The control unit directs all operations inside the computer .. It is known as nerve centre of the computer because it controls and co-ordinates all hardware operations i.e. those of the CPU and input - output devices.......More

Functioning of the Brain of Computer

  • Functioning of the Brain of Computer The central processing unit (CPU) is the brain of the computer. Memory is a very important part of this brain. It is said that the development of computer technology is all about developing its......More

Memory Utilization of Computer

  • Memory Utilization of Computer Magnetic cores were used as the main memory of first generation electronic computer. The magnetic tapes, disks and drums ate used as secondary and bulk storage. Magnetic tapes and photo- graphic films are used......More

Types of Computer Memory

  • Types of Computer Memory The main memory storage is divided into two portions ROM and RAM, the latter is of more than double the size of the former. Programs held in ROM are called firmware. They are stored permanently in the ROM and are......More

Memory Construction of Computer

  • Memory Construction of Computer Computers of different generations use memories of different types of which the following two are worth mentioning: 1. Magnetic ferrite core memory 2. Semiconductor memory Magnetic ferrite core......More

Words and Addresses of Computer

  • Words and Addresses of Computer In such a massive storage network, it is extremely difficult to locate the information when it is needed during calculations. During calculations, quite often we need to know where one group of cores......More

Computer Architecture

  • Computer Architecture   The basic elements of all types of digital computers are essentially the same. However, there are variations in their configuration. By architecture is meant the style of their construction and the......More

Anatomy of Microcomputer

  • Anatomy of Microcomputer A microcomputer basically consists of a keyboard and floppy disk as input device. The keyboard is a typewriter and is mounted little slanted but horizontally. It consists of 52 basic characters and various......More

Buses of Computer

  • Buses of Computer Let's look at how the computer finds the memory location which it wants to read or, if it is in RAM, to read or write to. In practice, the microprocessor, the 'heart' of a microcomputer, is connected to all......More

Internal Organization of CPU

  • Internal Organization of CPU The central processing unit of any digital computer comprises three basic elements: 1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) 2. Main Memory or Immediate Access Storage (IAS) 3. Control Unit (CU) In......More

Simple Mathematical Operations of Computer

  • Simple Mathematical Operations of Computer As discussed earlier, the fundamental method of representing information in a computer is a collection of electronic pulses generated by the opening and closing operation of switching devices. A......More

Role of the Control Unit of Computer

  • Role of the Control Unit of Computer   The sequence of operations to be performed inside the CPU needs to be coordinated, and the hardware (i.e. memory and ALU) needs to be controlled. The controlling and coordinating function (of......More

Current Instruction Register (CIR) of Computer

  • Current Instruction Register (CIR) of Computer   A special register is used to hold the machine instruction which is currently being interpreted by the 'control unit.' This register is called current instrument......More

Steps in Executing an Add Instruction of Computer

  • Steps in Executing an Add Instruction of Computer The following steps are performed in central processing unit to execute the ADD instruction. 1. The control unit decodes the function part of the instruction and interprets it as an ADD......More

Fetching the Next Instruction of Computer

  • Fetching the Next Instruction of Computer   The computer must automatically fetch the next instruction from memory after it has finished one particular instruction. The address of the next instruction is stored in another special......More

Functioning of the Control Unit of Computer

  • Functioning of the Control Unit of Computer The control unit is the nerve-centre of the computer and co-ordinates and controls all hardware operations. The control unit deals with each instruction in turn in a two-stage operation called the......More

Execution of Machine Instruction of Computer

  • Execution of Machine Instruction of Computer   Let us see how a machine instruction is executed by a computer. But, first let us see how an instruction is written. ...More

Instruction Format of Computer

  • Instruction Format of Computer A machine instruction held in the CIR has two parts, the function and the operand address. The function part consists of the binary code for operation to be performed and is of four characters' length,......More

Computer Programming

  • Computer Programming Computer programming means giving instruction to a computer in the language which it under- stands. Such instructions can be written in three different languages as given below: (a) Machine language (b) High......More

Use of Assembly Language Example of Computer

  • Use of Assembly Language Example of Computer Write a program in assembly language for adding the contents of location address 3 to the contents of location address 4 and placing the result in location address 5. Solution: Using the......More

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